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Age estimation based on different molecular clocks in several tissues and a multivariate approach: an explorative study.

These two biomarkers--pentosidine and D-aspartic acid--were able to predict chronological age with a mean absolute error of 4.0 years in this study. This seems interesting (I had never heard until now that D-aspartate accumulates during the lifespan), but these seem like biomarkers that might be "gamed" or "fooled" relatively easily by interventions that would affect the biomarker, but not the level of system-wide biological damage in the organism. The same idea holds true for other "aging biomarkers" such as testosterone, IGF-1, and DHEA-S. I wonder what others think of this report.
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Lifespan Changes of the Human Brain In Alzheimer’s Disease.

This study looks potentially useful for identifying Alzhiemer's disease development very early in the pathological process. This group analyzed "a massive number of MRI (N = 4329)" of humans of different ages, including control, Alzheimer's, and mild cognitive impairment subjects. They found early divergences between normal brain aging and Alzheimer's brains that occurred as early as before age 40 (in the hippocampus) and around age 40 (for the lateral ventricle and amygdala). I wonder if this information might be used to identify candidates for early interventions in the pathological process for Alzheimer's.
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Synchrony and asynchrony between an epigenetic clock and developmental timing.

This group reports that epigenetic aging "clocks" highly correlate with chronological age even during fetal development (as assessed by epigenetic age of fetal retina). This seems to support the concept that some epigenetic changes are highly regular and predictable during development (extending observations of this phenomenon throughout the lifespan after birth). They also note that these epigenetic changes are apparently accelerated in Down syndrome.
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Brain glucose metabolism in Lewy body dementia: implications for diagnostic criteria.

I have reported previously on studies about glucose metabolism in Alzheimer's disease. This research group reported on their investigation of using [18F]FDG-PET to diagnose dementia with Lewy bodies and to discriminate it from Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. The results look interesting; based on where the glucose hypometabolism is observed in the brain, "hypometabolism maps yielded extremely high discriminative power, distinguishing DLB from ADD and PD conditions with an accuracy of > 90%." Do we know exactly why glucose metabolism declines in these various regions in the brains of people with neurodegenerative disorders? Is it as simple as loss of (metabolically active) tissue?
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Age-dependent DNA methylation patterns on the Y chromosome in elderly males.

Given that women tend to live longer than men, and methylation patterns seem to be measuring some consistent age-related processes, I thought this study of DNA methylation patterns on the Y chromosome might be interesting. Interestingly, they concluded that the predominant, age-dependent, DNA methylation patterns on the Y chromosome were associated with a *reduced* risk of death.
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Cells exhibiting strong p16 INK4a promoter activation in vivo display features of senescence.

This group reports on a "knock-in fluorochrome", tandem dimer Tomato, for assessing the prevalence of senescent cells in the whole, live organism (in mice). This fluorochrome was apparently better at assessing p16INK4a promoter activation than mRNA abundance. I wonder what method they used to visualize the increase in p16INK4a promoter activation with aging (e.g. biopsy and fluorescence microscopy? Something else?) If it was not particularly invasive or toxic, perhaps it would be useful for the evaluation of promising medical interventions in aging humans.
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Free report on high blood pressure

The American Heart Association estimates more than 100 million Americans have high blood pressure, also known as “hypertension”. Learn more about the cause of high blood pressure and how you can reverse it in our free report.

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Biomarker levels predict the risk of early death—and we can change them! Learn about some important longevity biomarkers in our free report.

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An estimated 50% of American adults have either prediabetes or type 2 diabetes. Learn more about the cause of type 2 diabetes, prediabetes, insulin resistance, and how to reverse them in our free report.

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