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Highly Purified Human Extracellular Vesicles Produced by Stem Cells Alleviate Aging Cellular Phenotypes of Senescent Human Cells.

This seems related to parabiosis, insofar as one influential aspect of parabiosis might be derived from signaling molecules in the blood. This group compares extracellular vesicles ("EVs") derived from MSC and iPSC and find that iPSCs could "produce 16-fold more EVs than MSCs". Moreover, when applied to senescent MSCs in cell culture, these EVs from iPSCs could "reduce cellular ROS levels and alleviate aging phenotypes of senescent MSCs."
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Decreased Sarcopenia in Aged Females with Young Ovary Transplants was Preserved in Mice that Received Germ Cell-Depleted Young Ovaries.

I recently reported on a study of ovary transplant in mice being associated with a significant lifespan extension (see PMID 30547325). The first and last author on that paper are the authors of this report, in which they state that ovarian transplantation in mice was also associated with "an improvement of body composition in both treatment groups" (those receiving ovaries with or without germ cells). I did not look into the full-text to determine exactly what they meant by this.
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Very Long-Chain C24:1 Ceramide Is Increased in Serum Extracellular Vesicles with Aging and Can Induce Senescence in Bone-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

This group reported a rather dramatic increase in C24:1 ceramide in the extracellular vesicles from serum in both older human females and older rhesus macaques (about 3-4x higher). They also found that bone-derived mesenchymal stem cells "readily endocytose extracellular vesicles loaded with C:24:1 ceramide [which can] induce senescence [in these cells]." If this ceramide is present in such higher concentrations in the serum of older people and can induce senescence, I wonder whether they have any relevance to the age-related increase in senescent cell prevalence.
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Autophagy Is Required for Memory Formation and Reverses Age-Related Memory Decline.

I thought I've seen some reports of autophagy being downregulated or less active during aging, at least in some tissues. This group reports that age-related decline of autophagy in the hippocampus may be a cause of age-related memory impairment, and in mice, "restoration" of autophagy with young plasma "rejuvenates memory in an autophagy-dependent manner". They also report that osteocalcin appears to be "a direct hormonal inducer of hippocampal autophagy", which they identified in young plasma.
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Extension of longevity and reduction of inflammation is ovarian-dependent, but germ cell-independent in post-reproductive female mice.

This seems like a remarkable result: ovary transplantation from young mice in to older mice resulted in a significant extension of mean and maximum lifespan. It is also noteworthy that ovaries transplanted *without germ cells* resulted in an even greater extension of mean and maximum lifespan. I wonder what's going on here. Do the ovaries of a female mammal significantly control biological function, and thus, lifespan?
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Age-related declines in α-Klotho drive progenitor cell mitochondrial dysfunction and impaired muscle regeneration.

Perhaps "supplementation with α-Klotho" is tinkering with metabolism in a way that does not result in persistent rejuvenation, but these effects appear interesting. This group reports that "epigenetic control of the Klotho promoter is lost with aging", and that "α-Klotho restored mtDNA integrity and bioenergetics of aged MPCs to youthful levels in vitro and enhanced functional regeneration of aged muscle in vivo." These results also seem possibly related to the beneficial effects of parabiosis.
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Human umbilical cord blood plasma alleviates age-related olfactory dysfunction by attenuating peripheral TNF-α expression.

I'm not sure how much weight should be given to a change in the results of a "food finding test" in mice. But this group administered human cord blood-derived plasma to mice older than 24 months, and found that it was associated with an apparent improvement in age-related olfactory dysfunction (as assessed with this "food finding test"). This effect of cord blood-derived plasma seems to have some relation to parabiosis studies.
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