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Lifespan Changes of the Human Brain In Alzheimer’s Disease.

This study looks potentially useful for identifying Alzhiemer's disease development very early in the pathological process. This group analyzed "a massive number of MRI (N = 4329)" of humans of different ages, including control, Alzheimer's, and mild cognitive impairment subjects. They found early divergences between normal brain aging and Alzheimer's brains that occurred as early as before age 40 (in the hippocampus) and around age 40 (for the lateral ventricle and amygdala). I wonder if this information might be used to identify candidates for early interventions in the pathological process for Alzheimer's.
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Age-associated cholesterol reduction triggers brain insulin resistance by facilitating ligand-independent receptor activation and pathway desensitization.

This report reminded me of a series of studies that found that in older humans, *low* serum cholesterol is associated with higher mortality. Some of these studies report a remarkable increase in mortality associated with low serum cholesterol (for a summary of these studies, see PMID 27292972 ). Moreover, this study looks interesting because it may suggest a cause of the reduction in insulin sensitivity in the brain (reduced brain cholesterol), and this reduced sensitivity has been suggested as a potential contributor to or cause of Alzheimer's disease.
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Quiescence Modulates Stem Cell Maintenance and Regenerative Capacity in the Aging Brain.

Unfortunately, this study was done in mice, but interestingly, they report "a dramatic drop in the neural stem cells (NSC) number in the aging...brain". They also found that the remaining NSCs had a tendency toward quiescence, making them resistant to divide to regenerate the brain. I wonder whether these changes occur in aged humans and whether increasing the number of these cells would have rejuvenating effects in aged humans.
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Brain glucose metabolism in Lewy body dementia: implications for diagnostic criteria.

I have reported previously on studies about glucose metabolism in Alzheimer's disease. This research group reported on their investigation of using [18F]FDG-PET to diagnose dementia with Lewy bodies and to discriminate it from Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. The results look interesting; based on where the glucose hypometabolism is observed in the brain, "hypometabolism maps yielded extremely high discriminative power, distinguishing DLB from ADD and PD conditions with an accuracy of > 90%." Do we know exactly why glucose metabolism declines in these various regions in the brains of people with neurodegenerative disorders? Is it as simple as loss of (metabolically active) tissue?
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Cell cycle-dependent and -independent telomere shortening accompanies murine brain aging.

This group reports on some telomere and telomerase dynamics in the brains of aging mice. They observe that telomeres were shortened in old mice according to both proliferating and non-proliferating cell types. But this seems to be old news; I thought Oki told me years ago that during his PhD or post-doc work, he learned that the majority of telomere shortening was due to oxidative stress and other non-cell-cycle-related phenomena.
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Free report on high blood pressure

The American Heart Association estimates more than 100 million Americans have high blood pressure, also known as “hypertension”. Learn more about the cause of high blood pressure and how you can reverse it in our free report.

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Free longevity biomarker report

Biomarker levels predict the risk of early death—and we can change them! Learn about some important longevity biomarkers in our free report.

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Free diabetes report

An estimated 50% of American adults have either prediabetes or type 2 diabetes. Learn more about the cause of type 2 diabetes, prediabetes, insulin resistance, and how to reverse them in our free report.

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